O F




                            WRITTEN BY


                    Rev. Constas H. Demetry, D. D.



        This book was reprinted and condensed by permission of

        Helen Nichols and Danny Demetry, daughter and son of the

        late Rev. Constas H. Demetry.


        Printed in the office of:


                The Saint Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church

                        Fort Lauderdale, Florida







        and typed into a Digital Rainbow Computer System by:


                Peter Theodore Presbytes

                P.O. Box 1338

                Douglasville, Georgia






















                        I N T R O D U C T I O N


        For some time we were in need of a Catechism book for our

        Sunday School children besides teaching them the regular

        Sunday School lessons.


        One such book which has been out of print and which I felt

        would be ideal for our Sunday School Department was the

        material from this book taken from the Catechism Book

        written by the late Rev. Constas H. Demetry, D.D., father

        of our own Helen Nichols who has been very helpful in serving

        our community.  I am very grateful to Helen Nichols and

        Danny Demetry for giving me their permission to reprint this

        Catechism which I feel will be valuable instructive material

        in Sunday School and to non-Orthodox who wish to learn the

        Orthodox Faith.


        Rev. Constas H. Demetry, D.D., who wrote this Catechism, has

        served the Church courageously and conscientiously for more

        than thirty seven (37) years, during which time he was honoured

        with the title of Doctor of the Ecumenical Throne by the

        Patriarchate of Constantinople, and was decorated with the

        Golden Cross of the Savior by the Greek Government.



                                Rev. Nicholas C. Nick

                                St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church

                                815 NE 15 Avenue

                                Fort Lauderdale, FL 33304

                                (305) 467-1515



        Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.  Do

        not be led away by diverse and strange teachings.

                        ...(Book of Hebrews, Chapter 8, Verse 9)









                               of the

                      Eastern Orthodox Church


                             written by

                   Rev. Constas H. Demetry, D. D.





















                Catechism of the Greek Orthodox Faith




Q. What is our religion called?


A. The Christian Religion.


Q. Why is it called the Christian religion?


A. Because Christ gave it to the world.


Q. State its teachings briefly.


A. God made the world and created one pair of human beings upon the earth.

   Our first parents were fashioned good, but they disobeyed God, and through

   the sin of disobedience their mind was darkened and they lost God.  Their

   heart became evil.  From thence they fell into all wickedness and into

   death.  Their descendants suffered likewise.  But God through His love to

   His creatures sent His Son Jesus Christ, who became Man, taught concerning

   the true God and what His will is, founded His Church, that it might

   continue His work, was crucified that He might propitiate divine

   righteousness, which had been insulted by the sin of our First Parents, and

   reconcile men with God, and was buried.  But after three days He arose;

   forty days after the Resurrection He was received into Heaven and fifty days

   after the Resurrection He sent the Holy Spirit that He might guide His

   Church into all truth.  From thenceforth all who desired to be saved from

   sin and be happy both in this life and in that to come MUST believe in

   Christ, receive Divine Grace through the Sacraments and conform to His

   teachings, especially to that concerning love.


                        ON THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES


Q. How was the work of Christ continued?


A. By His Church.


Q. Did His Church remain united?


A. No; it became divided into many parts.


Q. Into how many divisions can these be arranged?


A. Into two, the Eastern and Western Churches.


Q. Which is the most notable of the Eastern Churches?


A. The Orthodox Church.


Q. Which are the most notable of the Western Churches?


A. The Papal or Roman Catholic, the Anglican, and the Protestant.


Q. Why is the Orthodox Church so named?


A. Because it believes rightly and is the Christian Church founded by Christ.


Q. Why is the Papal Church so named?


A. Papal, because she acknowledges as her head the Pope; Roman, because her

   seat is in Rome; and Catholic, because the Church, before it was divided,

   was called Catholic, and the Roman Church continues to appropriate for

   herself the title of the ancient undivided Church.


Q. Why are the Protestants so named?


A. Because they protested against the Papal Church and separated from it during

   the sixteenth (16th) century.


Q. Which Church lately separated from the Papal Church?


A. The Old Catholic Church.


Q. Why is the Anglican Church so named?


A. Because it is situated in England.


Q. What is the Anglican Church called in America?


A. It is known as the Episcopal Church.


Q. Why is it so named?


A. Because it alone, of all the Protestant Churches, retained the Order of



Q. To which Church do we belong?


A. To the Orthodox Church.


Q. How many Churches constitute the Orthodox?


A. The following:

    1. The four ancient Patriarchates, namely, that of Constantinople or the

   Ecumenical, and those of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.


    2. The three new Patriarchates of Russia, Serbia, and Roumania.


    3. The Autocephalous Churches of Cyprus, Greece, Georgia (Iberia) and



    4. The autonomous Churches of Czechoslovakia, Esthonia, Lithouania,

   Finland, North and South America, Northwestern and Central Europe,

   Australia and Mount Sinai.


Q. To which of the Orthodox Churches do the Greeks of America belong and why?


A. To the autonomous Greek Orthodox Church of North and South America; which

   Church is dependent upon the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the so named Great

   Church of Christ, (because its throne is first among all the Orthodox

   Churches) and therefore since the fourth Ecumenical Council all scattered

   Churches must depend on this Patriarchate, according to its decision, which

   was ratified by the successive Ecumenical Councils and was accepted by all

   the Churches, even by the Roman.


Q. In what respect does an autonomous Church differ from an autocephalous one?


A. It differs in this respect:

      The autonomous has some liberties in government but is dependent on

   another Church, while the autocephalous is free in its government but is

   compelled to keep the same Dogmas and Canons; in case any of them are

   broken the Ecumenical Patriarchate is entitled to intervene, and in case

   of disobedience, to call upon the other autocephalous Churches to make a

   common decision on the matter, as was done in 1872 in the case of the

   Bulgarian Church.


Q. How many members of the Orthodox Church have we in the United States?


A. We have about six (6) million.


Q. What Catechism ought the people of America study?


A. The Catechism of the Orthodox Church.


Q. Is it necessary for us to learn in what matters of belief the non-Orthodox

   Churches differ from our own, and why?


A. Yes, because different sects seek to proselytize us and take us away from

   Orthodoxy.  Therefore we must know what each one of them believes and who

   holds the right faith so as not to be mistaken in such an important matter

   upon which depends the salvation of the soul.  Furthermore, we must guide

   the misguided back to Orthodoxy so as to assure the salvation of as many as

   can be given guidance.


Q. Are there any differences among the Churches?


A. Yes, there are many.




                         OF THE CATECHISM



Q. What is the subject of the Catechism?


A. What we ought to believe and what we ought to do that we may inherit

   eternal life.


Q. What do we call those things which we ought to believe?


A. We call them Dogmas or Doctrines.


Q. What do we call the things which we ought to do?


A. We call them good deeds.


Q. From what sources are the contents of the Catechism derived?


A. From the Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition.


Q. What is the Holy Scripture?


A. Books written by the Prophets and other holy Hebrew men, before the birth

   of the Christ: and also the books which were written by the Apostles, and

   disciples of Christ.


Q. What are the first Books called and what the second?


A. The first are called the Old Testament and the second the New Testament or



Q. What is Holy Tradition, and is it absolutely essential to faith?


A. Holy Tradition consists of those things which Christ delivered to his

   Apostles and which they transmitted to their successors orally.  It is

   absolutely essential to faith, because it is the source of the Holy

   Scripture and we cannot understand all of the Holy Scripture correctly

   without the help of Holy Tradition.  Since the Protestant Churches reject

   Holy Tradition, they have no authoritative judge for the explanation of

   Holy Scripture.  Each has his own opinion, and on this account they differ

   among themselves, although they have the same name, Protestant.  And they

   will continue to be subdivided in the future as long as they do not restore

   Holy Tradition to its proper place in the Church.


Q. How do we accept the Holy Scripture?


A. As inspired and infallible.  (There are two theological opinions about

   inspiration and infallibility of Holy Scripture.  According to the first,

   inspiration and infallibility extend not only over religious and moral

   questions but also to all other matters which Holy Scripture touches, even

   to the words themselves.  According to the second, which is the more

   satisfactory, inspiration and infallibility are confined only to the ideas

   and especially to those of the ideas which concern Religious and moral

   truths, as they come from revelation and therefore being necessary for the

   salvation of man, must be guaranteed.)


Q. Into how many parts is the Catechism divided?


A. Into two (2) parts.  (a) Faith and (b) Good Deeds.



                        DIFFERENCES AS TO SOURCES



Q. Do all Churches agree as to the sources of Catechism?


A. No.

       (a) The Orthodox and the Anglican Churches accept two sources:

                        Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition.


       (b) The Papal Church acknowledges three (3) sources:

                Holy Scripture, Holy Tradition, and the Pope.


       (c) The Protestant Churches accept but one:

                                Holy Scripture.




                       THE TRUTH AS TO THE SOURCES



Q. Which Church is right with regard to the sources of the Catechism?


A. The Orthodox and the Anglican, whereas others are in error, because no one

   has the right to change the dogmas which Christ gave to us, either to add

   to them or to subtract from them, or to pervert them; since, if we are

   sufficient of ourselves to find out what the dogmas are, and which are

   needed for our salvation, the Incarnation of Christ would have been





                              P A R T     I.


                                F A I T H


                         THE SYMBOL OF THE FAITH




Q. Is it easy for us to derive the contents of the Catechism directly from

   their sources?


A. No; because the sacred Scripture is extensive and not written

   systematically, while Holy Tradition is scattered throughout the books of

   the Holy Fathers and the decisions of the Ecumenical Councils, and those

   of the Local Councils which are recognized.


Q. Where can we find the contents of the Catechism briefly?


A. We find our Faith in the Creed, or Symbol of Faith, and Good Deeds in the

   Decalogue and the Sermon on the Mount.


Q. What is the Creed or Symbol of Faith?


A. A very brief statement of the Christian Faith.


Q. Who composed the Symbol of Faith?


A. The first Ecumenical Council composed the first seven articles and the

   beginning of the eighth, and the second Council completed the eighth and

   composed the other four articles.


Q. Is the mere committing of it to memory sufficient?


A. No, it needs to be appropriately explained for complete understanding.


Q. What are the twelve articles of the Creed or the Symbol of Faith?


        1.  I believe in one (1) God, Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and

   Earth and of everything visible and invisable.


        2.  And in one (1) Lord Jesus Christ, the only-be-gotten Son of God,

   begotten of the Father before all Ages.  Light of Light, True God of True

   God, begotten not made, co-substantial with the Father, through Whom all

   things were made.


        3.  Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and

   was incarnated by the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary, and became Man.


        4.  Crucified for our salvation under Pontius Pilate, He suffered and

   was buried.


        5.  And was resurrected on the third day according to the Scriptures.


        6.  And ascended into heaven, and sat at the right hand of the Father;


        7.  And He will return in glory to judge the living and the dead;

   Whose reign will have no end.


        8.  And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who

   proceeds from the Father, Who together with the Father and the Son, is

   worshipped and glorified; Who spoke through the Prophets.


        9.  I believe in One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.


       10.  I acknowledge One Baptism for the remission of sins.


       11.  I await for the resurrection of the dead.


       12.  And the life of the Ages to come.   Amen.



                        IN EXPLANATION OF ARTICLE 1.


                        CONCERNING GOD AND THE WORLD



Q. What Dogmas are contained in the first article of the Creed?


A. The Dogmas:


        a.)  Concerning God        and        b.)  Concerning the World.



                        CONCERNING THESE DOGMAS

                        a.) Concerning God.


1.) God and His Perfections



Q. Who is God?


A. He who created the world.


Q. What is God?


A. A Spirit, personal, and supremely perfect.


Q. What does this mean?


A. It means that God is an immaterial Being (incorporeal), that He has mind

   and freedom, and that He is perfect in all things.


Q. Who made God?


A. No one; because God has no beginning.  He is without beginning.


Q. Where is God?


A. God is everywhere.  He is Omnipresent.


Q. Why do we not see Him?


A. Because He is Immaterial (Incorporeal).


Q. Does God see us?


A. God sees us and all things, and He sees everywhere at the same time.  He is



Q. Does God know many things?


A. God knows all things.  He is All-knowing.


Q. What power has God?


A. God has all power.  He is Almighty.


Q. Does God sin?


A. No.  He is All-holy.


Q. Can God do evil?


A. No.  He is All-good.  Because evil is the opposite of good; being the

   embodiment of sin, God cannot do evil, by definition.  God is All-holy

   and All-good.


Q. Can God do injustice?


A. No.  He is All-just.


Q. Does God ever change?


A. No.  He is Unchangeable.


Q. Can God die?


A. No.  He is immortal.






Q. Do the Churches differ on the personality of God?


A. No, excepting the Christian Scientists.  The Pantheists also differ, but

   they are not considered as a Christian Church.






Q. Who is right as to the personality of God?


A. The Churches, except the Christian Scientists, because the Holy Scripture

   attributes to God, mind, emotion, and will, which are the three attributes

   of all personality.  "God knoweth all things" (I John Ch. 3, Ver. 20).

   "God is love" (I John Ch. 4, Ver. 8).  "I seek not mine own will, but the

   will of the Father, which hath sent me" (Gospel of St. John Ch. 5, Ver. 30).



2.) The Unity and the Trinity of God



Q. Is God only One?


A. God is one only, but with three Persons unconfused, and inseparable, namely,

   the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.


Q. What phrase does the Church employ with reference to God?


A. That God is One in Three and Three in One.


Q. Can we understand the Holy Trinity?


A. No, because it is a mystery.


Q. What is a mystery?


A. A mystery is a truth which we cannot understand.


Q. Is it right that we should reject everything which we cannot understand?


A. No, because there are many things which we do not understand, but which

   exist, and which we use continually; for example, magnetism, electricity,

   gravity, etc.


Q. What material thing presents a little figurative similarity to the Holy



A. The sun, which being one, presents to us three things, light, heat, and



                        DIFFERENCES ON THE HOLY TRINITY



Q. Do all the Churches believe in the Three Persons of the Holy Trinity?


A. All except the Unitarians, who, concerning God, accept that He is one

   Person only;  The Jehovah Witness who accept one Person only before the

   Resurrection of Christ, that is the Father, but after it they accept two,

   the Father and the Son, but not the Holy Spirit, because they think it

   is not a person, but only an influence of the Father; and the Christian

   Scientists, who consider the Holy Trinity polytheistic.


                        THE TRUTH ON THE HOLY TRINITY



Q. Which one of the above is right and why?


A. The Churches who believe in the Holy Trinity, because Christ Himself gave

   us the Dogmas of the Holy Trinity, saying: "Make disciples of all

   nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of

   the Holy Spirit:"  (Gospel of St. Matthew Ch. 28, Ver. 19).


3.) Evidence of the Existence of God Apart from the Universe



Q. What evidence have we that there is a personal God apart from the Universe?


A.         a) The existence of the universe,

                b) its formation,

                        c) its government.


Q. About subtopic (a), How is it proved from the existence of the universe that

   there is a God apart from it?



       1.)  The universe, (the earth and the heavenly bodies) could not come

   into being of itself because it consists of matter, which is inert.  (A

   body is called inert, when it of itself, without external influence, cannot

   change its state.)


                Therefore there must be a personal Power apart from it,

                which gave it its beginning.  And this personal Power

                is God.


       2.)  The Universe, according to the astronomers, moves, and moves

   regularly, and in circles (rotates).  This rotating movement needed a power

   apart from the universe to produce this motion, and, in order that the

   power should not be exhausted or become larger or smaller, a Personal and

   Omnipotent Power is needed to renew the power which is lost on account of

   the friction of the motion, and to regulate it so that the motion might

   always be uniform.



Q. About subtopic (b), How is it proved from the formation of the universe

   that there is a wise, and omnipotent God, apart from it?


A. One of the bodies of the Universe, the earth, upon which we live, was not

   always, according to science, as it is now, but was formed gradually and



        1.  While according to scientists, it was a nebula in the beginning,

        it became a red-hot mass, and after much time, its surface cooled, and

        vegetation with its many species appeared upon it.


        2.  While there was no animal life to begin with, at some time it

        appeared with its many species.


        3.  While there existed no human, i.e. spiritual life, at some time,

        it also appeared.  But it was impossible for inanimate nature and

        equally for vegetation, animal life, and human life to appear by

        themselves, because matter feeds life, but cannot produce it.

        Therefore there ought to be, apart from the earth, a Personal Power

        which, by its mind, knew when the proper time came, and by its liberty

        or will, its astonishing strength and wisdom, was able to produce each



        4.  Man has Personality, i.e. Reason, and Conscience, which the

        mechanically operating universe cannot give.  Therefore there must be

        a God apart from the universe which has these two qualities and gave

        them to man.


        5.  All the people of the earth have the idea of God innate in them,

        and that of obedience to Him; also the ideas of good and evil, of

        eternity, of judgement and retribution, etc.  This universe does not

        have these ideas either as a whole or in parts.  Therefore there must

        be a Personal Power, apart from the universe, which, having these

        ideas, put them in man.


        6.  Everything in the universe has a purpose.  But a purpose is

        something which only a mind can conceive and afterwards execute, as a

        watch or airplane inventor invented and made the watch or airplane.

        But the universe has no mind; therefore this mind is apart from the

        universe, and this is God.



Q. About subtopic (c), How is it proved from the government of the universe,

   that there is an All-wise and Omnipotent God, apart from it?


A. The universe, great and manifold as it is, in order to be governed needs a

   Power apart from the universe itself, and one that is Personal, All-wise,

   and Omnipotent, and this Power is God.



4.)  Evidence That God Is One



Q. How is it proved that God is One and not many?



        1.  From the perfect order and unity of design, which we observe in

   the universe, and which could not be, if there were many gods, beacuse it

   is impossible for many to agree always and in all things.  For example, the

   sun and the soil are for the use of plants; plants are for animals; animals

   for man, and all things for the glory of God and the happiness of men.


        2.  From the fact that it is impossible for us to conceive many

   super-perfect beings as co-existent.  Therefore, God, being supremely

   perfect, must be only One.



                        b.) Concerning the World


1.)  On Creation



Q. Who created the world, how and why?


A. God created the world in six days, from nothing, with only the power of His

   Word, that He might make other beings happy also.


Q. Into what parts can we divide the world?


A. Into the visible world, that is, what we see (the earth, stars, etc.) and

   into the invisable, that is, what we do not see, (spirits).


Q. Are all spirits the same?


A. No, there are good spirits, namely, the Angels, and there are evil spirits,

   namely, the Demons.


Q. Were the spirits always of two kinds?


A. No.  God made them all good, but a part of them afterwards rebelled and

   became evil.


Q. What is the work of the Angels?


A. To serve God and to help men in good deeds, and to protect them as Guardian



Q. What is the work of the Demons?


A. To pervert men and make them evil.


Q. Which was the most excellent creature in the visible world?


A. Man.


Q. Who were the first human beings whom God created and what are they called?


A. The first human beings that God created were Adam and Eve, and they are

   called our First Parents.


Q. What were the distinct component elements that God gave them and how did He

   form them?


A. The component parts were two:


                body and soul,

                        and He formed them in His own image and likeness.


Q. What does "in His image" signify?


A. That which God has, namely, mind, freedom, power, and immortality, He also

   gave to man when He formed our First Parents.


Q. What does "in His likeness" signify?


A. That the gifts which God gave to our First Parents were sufficient to enable

   them, assisted by the Divine Grace, to become perfect and like unto God.



                        DIFFERENCES ON CREATION



Q. Do The Churches differ on creation?


A. No, except Christian Scientists who accept a spiritual world only, i.e. God

   and a spiritual universe, which was not created, but co-exists with God as

   His idea, while a material world does not exist, but is false, as testimony

   of the senses of man, which senses deceive him.  Secondarily, they do not

   accept Angels and Devils as Spirits, but as good thoughts and evil beliefs.



                        THE TRUTH AS TO CREATION



Q. Who is right as to creation?


A. The Churches, because the Scripture, on which Mrs. Eddy says that she bases

   her heresy, tells us clearly that:


        1.  Neither spirits, man nor the world was co-existent with God, but

    were created.

                ("..in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the


                                ...Genesis Chapter 2, Verse 4.

                ("..glorify thou me ... with the glory which I had with thee

                  before the world was.")

                                ...St. John Chapter 17, Verse 5.


        2.  That God created the angels good spirits, and that some of them

    sinned and became evil spirits, or Devils.

                ("..Who maketh his angels spirits..")

                                ...Hebrews Chapter 1, Verse 7.

                ("For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them

                  down to hell..")

                                ...II Peter Chapter 2, Verse 4.






Q. Were our First Parents happy, and why?


A. Our First Parents were happy because they were innocent.


Q. Did God give them any commands and why?


A. He commanded them not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil,

   that He might test their obedience.  (Many people think that the fruit

   which the First Parents ate in disobedience to God was the carnal

   connexion.  This is not true, because the lawful carnal connexion of man

   and woman and procreation of children is in accordance with the will of

   God, since God, as soon as He created the First Parents, blessed them and

   said to them:

                        "Be Fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth.."

                                ...Genesis Chapter 1, Verse 28.


Q. Did they remain faithful to God?


A. No, they fell into temptation, disobeyed, and sinned.


Q. What good would they have had if they had obeyed?


A. Their bodies would have become immortal like their souls, and they would

   have insured for themselves forever the happiness which they had.


Q. What did they suffer through the sin of disobedience?



        1.  Their minds became darkened and they lost God.


        2.  Their hearts became perverted and they began to love the evil more

            than the good.


        3.  They fell into sickness and various other evils.


        4.  Their bodies became mortal.


        5.  Their souls were condemned to moral death, which is separation

            from God, i.e.  eternal misfortune.


Q. Did only our First Parents suffer from their disobedience?


A. Unfortunately the whole human race born since has also suffered.  They

   inherited the same evils, just as they would have inherited immortality

   and happiness, if our First Parents had obeyed; because just as impure

   water proceeds from an impure fountain so also sinful men are born of

   sinful ancestors.


Q. Did the rest of creation suffer anything from the disobedience of our

   First Parents?


A. Assuredly; and because of this, since then, "the whole creation groaneth

   and travaileth in pain together until now.", as the Apostle Paul writes in

   the Book of Romans, Chapter 8, Verse 22.


Q. What is that sin of disobedience, with all the evils which it brought,



A. The original sin.


Q. Are we responsible for the original sin?


A. Personally none; because we did not personally commit the sin of our First

   Parents; but we are charged with it by inheritance because we were in Adam

   and Eve when they sinned, and for this reason the Apostle Paul writes:


                "..all have sinned."  ...Book of Romans, Chapter 5, Verse 12.


Q. Has anyone been exempted from the original sin?


A. Only Jesus Christ, because He was incarnate of the Holy Spirit, which,

   being God, is without sin, and of the Virgin Mary after her cleansing of

   original sin by the Holy Spirit when the Angel announced to her the

   conception and birth of Christ.


Q. Does man also carry the burden of other sins besides the original sin?


A. Assuredly; personal sins.  (The personal sins are mortal and non-mortal.

   Mortal are those which destroy any hope of repentance, because they bring

   the death of the soul, namely, moral, eternal death.  But every sin may be

   forgiven by since repentance.


Q. What do personal sins lead to?


A. Personal sins lead to passion.


Q. What is passion and what evils does it inflict?


A. Passion is a bad habit, acquired through the repetition of sin.  It takes

   away freedom and inflicts the same evils as the original sin.



                        ON THE EXISTENCE OF THE SOUL



Q. What is the soul?


A. The spiritual and moral part of man.


Q. Does the soul exist separately or is it perhaps the brain, as materialists



A. The brain is one thing and the soul another.  The brain, as part of the

   body, is material.  The soul is immaterial, and apart from the body, but

   uses the brain as its organ for its operations.



4.) Evidences of the Existence of the Soul



Q. Are there reasons which demand the existence of a spiritual soul within us,

   apart from the body?


A. Assuredly; the following:


        1.  The conceptions of the soul and of disembodied (incorporeal)

   spirits which we possess, even though they do not come through our senses

   from the external material world.


        2.  The consciousness that we are not only body but also spirit.


        3.  The creative power to conceive ideas and make material things by

   them which we, alone of all animals possess.


        4.  The spiritual world which only man has within him, and which could

   not originate from a material brain.


        5.  The simultaneous operation of two spiritual energies which could

   be impossible if we had only a material brain working mechanically.  (For

   example, the mind, while engaged in the process of reading, can at the same

   time think of other things).


        6.  The fact that the ego is not changed, while the brain is changed

   every so often, according to science.


        7.  The fact that the spirit is young when the body is old.


        8.  The fact that the spirit often regularly functions in cases where

   an autopsy shows afterwards that the brain was injured or wholly destroyed;

   and vice versa, namely, that the spiritual energy is often not regular

   where an autopsy shows afterwards that the brain was healthy.



5.)  On the Immortality of the Soul



Q. Does the soul die?


A. No; the soul is immortal.


Q. Are there reasons which require the immortality of the soul, and if so,

   what are they?


A. Assuredly; they are the following:


        1.  All nations have always believed and do believe in the immortality

   of the soul, a conviction which does not come from the outer world.

   Therefore the Creator implanted it in our hearts and it must be true.


        2.  Man desires immortality from that which is implanted within him.

   But implanted desires have corresponding objects by which they are



        3.  Man desires perfect happiness and cannot attain it in this life.

   Therefore, another life is fitting and necessary to attain it.


        4.  Elementary justice seeks that the good shall be rewarded and the

   wicked punished.  But this does not always happen in this world.

   Therefore, the soul must be immortal that it may render account of itself

   in another life.


        5.  Material things, being compound, are subject to decomposition,

   that is, they die.  But the soul cannot be dissolved because it is simple.

   Therefore it is immortal.


        6.  If the soul were not immortal, and gave no account of itself in

   another life, there could be no mortality, nor surety, nor could society

   exist, because self-sacrifice, which strengthens society, would be wanting,

   and egoism, which blights every good, would prevail.



                        DIFFERENCES ON THE FALL



Q. How do the Churches differ respecting the Dogma of the fall of man?



        a)  The Orthodox, Anglican, and Papal Churches accept that the nature

   of man has suffered from sin, i.e. the image of God in him has been

   corrupted and the "in His likeness" has not been attained, and all men are

   responsible before God for the original sin.


        b)  The Protestant Churches accept that the nature of man, i.e. that

   "in His image", was lost wholly, and replaced with a nature wholly corrupt

   and ethically dead.

        b1) But some of them, as the so-called Church of God, do not accept

   that all men are responsible before God for the original sin.


        c)  The Christian Scientists accept that:

                1.  Man is not simply a material form with a soul inside, but

                a reflection of the infinite, the true idea, the true image

                and likeness of God.


                2.  Man did not fall, because it is impossible to fall for an

                idea of God, apparently never born and never dying.



                        THE TRUTH AS TO THE FALL



Q. Which Church is right in its teaching on the Dogma of the fall?


A. The Orthodox, the Anglican, and Papal Churches, whereas others are in error



        1.  If all men are not responsible for the original sin, why does

   St. Paul write?  "In whom all sinned," (Book of Romans, Chapter 5, Verse 12)

   and that before we became Christians, "we were children of wrath, even as

   others", (Book of Ephesians, Chapter 2, Verse 3).  Therefore, how otherwise

   did we sin than by heredity, by reason of the sin of our First Parents, and

   how could we be under the wrath of God if the sin of our First Parents did

   not rest heavily upon us?


        2.  If the image of God was wholly destroyed, why does the Holy

   Scripture say, "Who so sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be

   shed; for in the image of God I made man", (Genesis, Chapter 9, Verse 6).

   And this is said concerning man not before the fall but after it.


        3.  The soul does not die, as is shown above; but the death to which

   the Holy Scripture refers, is moral death, as appears from the words of the

   Apostle Paul, "She who liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth."

   (I Timothy, Chapter 5, Verse 6).


        4.  For man to be considered as the reflection of the infinite, a kind

   of God, contradicts reality which presents man as being finite in all



        5.  If man did not fall, then who is in error?


                a) The Holy Scripture which declares that man has fallen?


                b) Christ, who assures us that, "the Son of Man came to give

                   His life a ransom for many" (Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 20,

                   Verse 28)?


                c) or the Christian Scientists?


        It seems obvious that (c) the Christian Scientists are in error.




                                ARTICLE 2.


                     ON THE DIVINITY OF JESUS CHRIST



Q. Which Dogma is found in the second article of the creed?


A. The Dogma concerning the Divinity of Jesus Christ; that our Lord Jesus

   Christ is begotten of the substances of the Father and on this account the

   Symbol speaks of Him as cosubstantial with the Father; He is true God and

   Creator of everything, because the world was created by the Father through

   Jesus Christ.






Q. Have we proofs that Jesus Christ is God and what are they?


A. Assuredly.  We have many, the chief of which are as follows:


        1.  Thousands of years before Christ was born, many prophets predicted

   all the details concerning Him, and ALL were fulfilled.  This is a unique

   phenomenon in History.


        2.  Only God works miracles by His own power.  But Jesus wrought

   miracles in His own power, and said also to other men that He would give

   them this power through the invocation of His name alone, and He has done



        3.  Christ Himself, who never uttered a lie, confessed Himself to God.

   "I and the Father are one," (Gospel of St. John, Chapter 10, Verse 30), and

   "He that came down from heaven, the Son of man which is in heaven." (Gospel

   of St. John, Chapter 3, Verse 13).


        4.  The Disciples of Jesus testify that Christ is God.  "God was

   manifest in the flesh"  (I Timothy, Chapter 3, Verse 16).  "In Him (Christ)

   dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily" (Book of Colosians,

   Chapter 2, Verse 9).  And "Christ Who is over all God blessed forever"

   (Book of Romans, Chapter 9, Verse 5) and read II Corinthians, Chapter 5,

   Verse 18), etc.


        5.  All the local and Ecumenical Councils acknowledged Christ as God,

   and all the Church for twenty centuries has worshipped Him as God, so that

   "every knee in Heaven and upon earth and under the earth should bow before

   Him." (Book of Phillipians, Chapter 2, Verse 10), in the future also.


        6.  The truth of the divinity of Jesus Christ was delivered among

   innumerable persecutions and sacrifices.  That it prevailed is an

   indication that it received the help of God, who would not have granted His

   help if this truth were not real.






Q. Who are right?


A. The Churches, while those who deny the divinity of Christ are in error for

   all of the above reasons, and moreover have no right to be called

   Christians, because Jesus Christ Himself declares, that He founded His

   Church upon the confession of Saint Peter, that Jesus is God. (Gospel of

   Matthew, Chapter 16, Verse 18).  It is true that the Bible Students accept

   that Christ is God today because He apparently became so after His

   resurrection; but, inasmuch as they deny His perpetual divinity, they are

   also heretics, because they reject an express teaching of Christ, and they

   do not differ from Arius, who was condemned as a heretic for the same

   misbelief, that Christ is not God without beginning as the Father is.  The

   same is true of the Christian Scientists.  As long as the divinity which

   they attribute to Christ is something which every man can acquire, the

   nature of Christ is believed to be something created, and as such can

   become perfect, but cannot be or become a divine substance or nature.  But

   Christ says: "O Father, glorify thou me with the glory which I had with thee

   before the world was." (Gospel of St. John, Chapter 17, Verse 5).



                                ARTICLE 3.



                           OF THE MOTHER OF GOD



Q. What Dogmas are set forth in the third article?


A. The Dogmas of the incarnation of Christ and of the perpetual virginity of

   the Mother of God.


                a) The Incarnation of Christ



Q. What is the Dogma of the incarnation of Christ?


A. That Jesus Christ, the second person of the Holy Trinity, while never

   ceasing to be God, became man at an appointed time.


Q. How did He become a man?


A. At the time when the Virgin Mary was consecrated to the service of God,

   and was in the Temple, the Archangel Gabriel came and announced to her the

   unprecedent miracle which would take place within her.  Then the Holy Spirit

   descended and, after He had first cleansed her from the original sin, gave

   her the power to conceive within her the Son of God, who after nine months

   was born a man.


Q. Was it necessary that the Son of God should become a man?


A. Yes; that He might save man it was necessary that as a man He should give

   men the right teaching about God and all other heavenly teachings, that

   He might enlighten the minds of men, and that He might satisfy the divine

   Justice with the sacrifice of His sinless life and reconcile to their

   Creator the creatures who were under the wrath of God.


Q. What name was Christ given with reference to His saving work?


A. Jesus, i.e. Saviour, Redeemer.


Q. Why is He called Christ?


A. Because He was anointed with the Holy Spirit, as the Kings, Prophets, and

   High Priests of the Hebrews were anointed with Holy Oil.


Q. How many natures and how many wills had Christ after the incarnation; and

   what is He called with reference thereto?


A. Christ had two natures and two wills, namely, the divine and the human.

   For this reason He is called the God-man.


Q. How many persons were there in Christ after the incarnation?


A. One person, one Christ.


Q. How were the two wills harmonized?


A. The human will was subjected voluntarily to the divine, as a good pupil

   obeys his teacher and a good son his father, without compulsion.






Q. In what do the Churches differ with reference to the Dogma of the

   incarnation of Christ?


A. Whereas the Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant Churches accept that only

   Christ was conceived and born without Original sin, the Papal Church, since

   1854, has dogmatically declared that the Mother of God also was conceived

   and born spotless; this is called the Immaculate Conception.






Q. Which Church is right as to the Dogma of the Incarnation of Christ?


A. The Orthodox and Protestant, because the Holy Scripture declares that:


                "all have sinned," (Book of Romans, Chapter 3, Verse 23),


                except Jesus Christ (Book of Hebrews, Chapter 4, Verse 14),


                while Holy Tradition knows nothing of any such teaching as


                that of the Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God.



                        b) The Perpetual Virginity




Q. What is the Dogma of the perpetual virginity of the Mother of God?


A. That the Mother of God "conceived as a virgin, brought forth as a virgin,

   and after the birth still remained a virgin."






Q. In what do the Churches differ as to the Dogma of the perpetual virginity

   of the Mother of God?


A. While the Orthodox, Anglican, and Papal Churches accept that the Mother of

   God is ever virgin, some Protestants from the sixteenth (16th) century

   onward began to teach that the Blessed Virgin Mary was the mother of other

   children after the birth of Jesus.  They maintain that they gather this

   mistaken opinion from the Gospel, where brethren of Jesus are referred to,

   (Matthew, Chapter 12, Verse 46), and where it is said concerning Joseph,

   "and he knew her not till she brought forth," (Matthew, Chapter 1,

   Verse 25).  (They who are called brothers of Jesus were children of Joseph

   by a former wife, as he was only the betrothed of the Blessed Virgin Mary,

   as Jerome and others accept, or of Clopas and the sister of the Mother of

   God, as Origen, Eusebius, etc., accept, namely, that they were cousins of

   Jesus.  In the Scripture cousins are spoken of as brethren, (Genesis,

   Chapter 13, Verse 8).






Q. Which Church is right with regard to the Dogma of the perpetual virginity?


A. The Orthodox, Anglican, and Papal Churches, while the Protestants are in

   error, because the so-called brethren of Jesus were not children of the

   Mother of God, because if she had had other children, Jesus upon His cross

   would have left His Mother to the care of some one of them, who would have

   been present at His last moments, and not to the care of John, and He would

   not have said to her:


                "Woman, behold thy son," (St. John, Chapter 19, Verse 26),


   that is, since you are losing the only one you have.




                                ARTICLE 4.






Q. What Dogma is found in the fourth article?


A. In the fourth article we find the Dogma of the Propitiatory sacrifice of



Q. What is the propitiatory or atoning sacrifice of Jesus?


A. The sacrifice of His sinless life, which He offered upon the cross, which

   was necessary to offer to God, and which He did that the divine Justice,

   which had been insulted by the disobedience of our First Parents, might be



Q. What would have occured if this sacrifice of Jesus had not been offered?


A. The body of man, after undergoing in this life all this misfortune, would

   finally have died, as also now, but without any hope of a resurrection, and

   the soul would have been punished eternally in the life to come far from

   God; while now, because of the sacrifice of Christ, the soul is delivered

   from punishment, (if man believes in Him and is perfected living after His

   commandments), and the body is to be raised and united each with its soul.


Q. Could any other have offered this sacrifice?


A. No; neither man nor angel, because no man was without sin, and an angel

   could not offer a sacrifice sufficiently to satisfy the divine

   righteousness, because a creature, however much it can do, cannot do it of

   itself alone, but only by the aid of Divine Grace.


Q. What is the power of the sacrifice of Jesus?


A. The sacrifice of Jesus Christ has the power to forgive the sins of all men,

   of every age, who believe in Jesus and repent for their sins, while still

   in this life, and to make them children of God after they have been

   children of wrath by reason of disobedience of Adam and Eve.


Q. What became of the men who were living before the propitiatory sacrifice

   was offered?


A. As many as believed in Jesus as the Messiah, as the prophets had prophesied

   of Him, and kept the Mosaic Law, were redeemed when Jesus, after His

   crucifixion, decended into Hades (Hell), not into punishment, but into the

   place where the aforesaid were detained and bore to them the glad tidings

   of their redemption, (I Peter, Chapter 3, Verse 19), (Book of Hebrews,

   Chapter 11, Verse 40), and (Book of Ephesians, Chapter 4, Verses 8-10).






Q. How do the Churches differ as to the Dogma of the propitiatory sacrifice?


A. All agree, except the Unitarians, and misled Bible Students, who do not

   accept the sacrifice of Christ as propitiatory, since they believe that

   Christ was simply a man, and hence His sacrifice was personal, and not for

   all men.


   On the other hand, the Christian Scientists hold:


        1.  The Christ did not die.


        2.  That the theory of atonement is man-made, as no propitiation was

   necessary, because God cannot propitiate Himself and it is divinely

   unnatural that God's wrath should be vented upon His beloved Son.


        3.  That one sacrifice, however great is insufficient to pay the debt

   for a sin.


        4.  That it was not necessary that Christ reconcile God to man, but

   man to God, and Christ accomplished it by bringing Himself at-one-ment with



        5.  That Christ did not make His sacrifice for other men, or to

   relieve them of their individual responsibility, but only to show them how

   to make theirs.


        6.  That, therefore, the blood of Jesus was not efficacious to cleanse

   men from sin.






Q. Who are right as to the Dogma of propitiatory sacrifice?


A. The Churches, whereas the Unitarians, Christian Scientists, and misled

   Bible Students, are in error:


        1.  Because Christ died beyond all doubt, (Matthew, Chapter 27,

   Verse 50),   (Mark, Chapter 15, Verse 37), (Luke, Chapter 23, Verse 47),

   (John, Chapter 19, Verse 30).


        2.  Beacuse the theory of God's wrath and atonement is not man-made or

   unnatural but a revealed truth.  For this reason Saint Paul says:


                "There is no difference; for all have sinned and come short

                 of the Glory of God; being justified freely by His grace

                 through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; whom God

                 hath set forth to be propitiation, through faith in His

                 blood, we shall be saved from wrath, through Him."

                        ...(Book of Romans, Chapter 5, Verse 9)


        3.  Because the sacrifice of Christ was sufficient for the sins of all

   men "both original and personal".  For this reason Saint Peter says:


                "Who His own self bare our sins in His own body on the tree

                 (cross), by whose stripes ye were healed",

                        ...(I Peter, Chapter 2, Verse 24)


        4.  Because the reconciliation made by the Christ is not a mere

   demonstration how man is to harmonize himself to God (at-one-ment), but

   also a propitiation of divine righteousness which man had offended by his

   disobedience and a real removal (a pardon) of a personal responsibility

   which all men bear by disobedience of the First Parents.  For this reason

   Saint Paul says:


                "As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by

                 the obedience of one shall many be made righteous",

                        ...(Book of Romans, Chapter 5, Verse 19)


                "And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to Himself

                 by Jesus Christ ... to wit, that God was in Christ,

                 reconcilling the world into Himself, not imputing their

                 trespasses unto them"

                        ...(II Corinthians, Chapter 5, Verses 19-20)


   But in regard to "atonement" which Mrs. Eddy, by analyzing into

   "at-one-ment", found proper to express her antiscriptural teachings, we

   have to say, that this word "atonement" is not the original word but a

   translation of the Greek, which means atonement in the sense of

   propitiation or propitiatory sacrifice.


        5.  Because the blood of Jesus is the only efficacious means of

   cleansing sin.  For this reason Saint John says:


                "Not that we love God, but that He loved us and sent His Son

                 to be the propitiation for our sins,"

                        ...(I John, Chapter 4, Verse 10)


                "and of the whole world,"

                        ...(I John, Chapter 2, Verse 2)


                "And if the blood of bulls and of goats sanctifieth, how much

                 more shall the blood of Christ purge your conscience from

                 dead works?"

                        ...(Book of Hebrews, Chapter 13, Verse 15)


   And if all the above are not sufficient, we bring the words of our Lord



                "this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you

                 and for many for the remission of sins."

                        ...(Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 26, Verse 27)




                                ARTICLE 5.





Q. What Dogma is contained in the fifth Article?


A. The Dogma of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.


Q. What is this Dogma?


A. That Jesus Christ, when He was crucified, died and was buried on Friday;

   after three days He rose as He had foretold, during the night between the

   Sabbath and the Lord's Day, wherefore we celebrate the festival of the

   Resurrection under the name of Easter.


                In the Greek Orthodox Church, it is shouted at Easter:


                        "Christos Aneste, Alithos Aneste!!"


                which means: "Christ is risen, Truly He is risen!!"


Q. Did Christ remain three (3) days in the sepulchre?


A. Certainly, because the Hebrews began the day from sunset.  Consequently

   from the hour of His death to the evening of Friday is one day, to the

   evening of the Sabbath is another, and the Lord's Day from the setting of

   the sun on the Sabbath evening to the hour of the Resurrection is a third.


Q. Have we witnesses that Christ rose?


A. Certainly.  We have all those to whom Jesus manifested Himself in His

   eleven (11) appearances after His Resurrection.  The eleven (11) appearances

   are the following:


        1.  To Mary Magdalene

        2.  To the same with the other woman.

        3.  To Peter

        4.  To Luke and Clopas

        5.  To the ten (10) disciples (Thomas being absent)

        6.  To the eleven (11) Disciples eight (8) days later

        7.  To the Disciples near the Lake Gennesaret

        8.  To the Disciples on the Mount in Galilee

        9.  To the five hundred (500) brethren

        10. To Saint James

        11. On the Mount of Olives, when He ascended


Q. In what form does the body of Jesus Christ exist since the Resurrection?


A. It is incorruptible and does not possess those normal physical needs which

   it had before, as all men have them, when He lived as man in this life.


Q. Where was the soul of Jesus when His body was in the sepulchre?


A. It descended to Hades bearing the joyful tidings to those who had believed

   in His coming as Messiah and had died before He was born.






Q. Do all the Churches differ as to the Dogma of the Resurrection?


A. All the Churches agree.  Only the following differ:


        1.  The misled Bible Students who hold that the body of Jesus did not

            rise, but was perhaps changed into gases.


        2.  The Rationalists, who deny the Resurrection as a miracle, since

            they deny every miracle as (apparently) impossible.


        3.  The Christian Scientists, who teach that since Christ did not die,

            He did not rise either.



                        THE TRUTH AS TO THE RESURRECTION



Q. Who are right as to the Dogma of the Resurrection?


A. The Churches, while the misled Bible Students, the Rationalists, and the

   Christian Scientists are in error because:


        1.  since, as the Bible Students believe, Christ from a spirit of a

   secondary order, which He apparently was before the incarnation, became

   after the incarnation simply a body without a soul, how that according to

   their belief could have risen and gone into Heaven and have then become



        2.  Miracles, as acts of God, both are possible (since God both knows

   how to perform such acts and is able and willing to do so) and are

   historical facts; since the miracles of the Gospel and those which were

   wrought and are still being wrought before thousands of men of every rank

   and age, we cannot reject them without overturning and perverting history.

   The Resurrection of Jesus in particular is an historical fact, since Christ

   had died, as it is scientifically proved by the blood which came from His

   pierced side, because it was separated into blood and water, as happens

   with the dead, and after His burial He showed Himself, alive with His body,

   pierced in the hands and the feet and the side; He showed Himself,

   moreover, not once, but eleven (11) times, and to over five hundred (500+)

   men, who were not credulous, because some of them then believed only when

   they made use, not only of their sight and hearing, but even of their

   touch; these men, who had been like trembling hares, became by this reason

   of the Resurrection fearless heroes, having the courage to sacrifice life

   itself, preaching:


                "That which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes,

                 and our hands have handled that declare we unto you."

                        ...(I John, Chapter 1, Verses 1-3)


        3.  Saint Paul considers the Christian Faith vain without the

   Resurrection of Christ (I Corinthians, Chapter 15, Verse 17)




                                ARTICLE 6.



                        RIGHT HAND OF THE FATHER



Q. What Dogmas are contained in the sixth article?


A. The sixth article contains these:


        a) The Dogma of the Ascension, and


        b) The Dogma of the session of Jesus Christ at the right hand of the



a.)  Concerning The Ascension of Jesus Christ



Q. What is the Dogma of the Ascension?


A. That after Jesus had remained on the earth after His resurrection

   forty (40) days conversing with His Disciples, He was received up

   before them into Heaven; this event the Church celebrates forty (40) days

   after Easter under the name of the "Feast of Ascension".


b.)  Concerning The Session Of Jesus Christ At The Right Hand Of The Father



Q. What is the Dogma of the session of Jesus at the right hand of the Father?


A. That our Lord after His ascension into Heaven sat down at the right hand

   of the Father, being now simply God, as He was before the incarnation, but

   the God-man, with His glorified body, as it is after the Resurrection.


Q. What do we mean by the words "sat at the right hand"?


A. That Jesus Christ as the God-man, having completed His saving work for the

   whole world, continues to be equal in all things with the Father, just as

   He was before His incarnation.




                   AT THE RIGHT HAND OF THE FATHER



Q. Do the Churches differ on the Doctrine of the Ascension and the Session

   of Jesus Christ at the right hand of the Father?


A. No.  Only those who do not accept the Doctrine of the Resurrection of

   Jesus Christ, of course, do not accept the Doctrine of the Ascension

   and the Session of Jesus Christ at the right hand of the Father.  Let

   us pray for those who differ that they may be loosed from the grip of

   Satan, and be given Eternal Life in Christ Jesus!!!




                        ARTICLE 7, 11, and 12.



                    THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD,

                        AND THE FUTURE LIFE.



Q. With which other articles may Article 7 be combined and why?


A. It may be combined with the 11th and 12th, because all three contain Dogmas

   related to each other.


Q. What are these Dogmas?



        1.  The Second Coming of Jesus Christ.

        2.  The Resurrection of the Dead.

        3.  The Future Life.


Q. What is the Dogma of the Second Coming of Christ?


A. That the bodies of all dead mankind will rise.


Q. What is the Dogma of Future Life?


A. That the existence of man does not cease with death, but that, after death

   he passes to another life.


Q. Into how many Stages may the life of man after death be divided and what

   are these Stages?


A. Into three (3) Stages:


        1)  The time from the moment of death to the Second Coming of Christ.

        2)  The time during                      the Second Coming of Christ.

        3)  The time after                       the Second Coming of Christ.



                        FIRST STAGE



Q. What becomes of man during the First (1st) Stage?


A. At the instant when a man dies, the body goes to the earth and is disolved

   into the elements of which it is composed, and the soul undergoes a

   preliminary divine judgement.


        1.  If he has believed in Jesus Christ, kept His faith incorrupt,

   repented his sins before his death, and done good deeds, he is led where

   God assigns him and lives in happiness until the Second Coming of Christ.


        2.  But if he has been an unbeliever, or believed in Christ, but

   corrupted His faith, or sinned after Baptism and did not repent before he

   died, and did not do good deeds, he is taken where God assigns him and

   lives unhappy until the Second Coming of Christ.


        3.  But if he was a believer, and did not corrupt the faith, and

   having sinned, did indeed repent, but did not reach the performance of

   good deeds to prove his repentance by actions, then he is led where God

   assigns him, that he may be punished temporarily, as long as Divine

   Righteousness considers proper.


Q. How many therefore, and what are the conditions one or another of which

   each man meets immediately at the instant of death?


A. The conditions are three (3):


        1.  one of happiness, which will be made complete and eternal after

   the general judgement,


        2.  one of unhappiness, which will be made worse and eternal after the

   general judgement,


        3.  one of temporary unhappiness, which will be changed to happiness

   some time before the general judgement.


Q. Will all the saved enjoy the same happiness and all the punished suffer the

   same unhappiness?


A. No, each individual will be rewarded or punished according to his faith and

   his works.


Q. Is every tie between the living and the dead broken by death?


A. No, because those who are in happiness (the saints) pray to God for us; but

   those who are in temporary punishment need our prayers.


Q. How, therefore, should we act with regard to the dead?



        a) With regard to the Saints we properly:


                1.  Call upon them in our needs, that they may pray to God

                    that He may be merciful to us.


                2.  Venerate their Pictures and holy Relics, and celebrate

                    their festivals as appointed by the Church.


                3.  Learn to profit by their good works which we find recorded

                    in their biographies, and of which their pictures remind

                    us whenever we see them.


        b) With regard to the wicked we properly:


                1.  Give alms and offer Liturgies, and Memorials.


                2.  Record their names that they may be remembered by the

                    ministers of the Most High God at the Divine Liturgy

                    and especially on the Soul-Sabbaths, which the Church

                    appointed for memorial services for our beloved departed.


Q. Are all the dead benefited by those things which we do for them?


A. No, only those who did not attain to the doing of good works, but repented

   before they died; because God, being moved by our fervent and continued

   prayers, especially by masses, which are the sacrifice of His Son, may

   shorten the time of their disagreeable condition, which they spend in

   studying themselves, since they did what depended upon them,

   i.e. repentance.


Q. Can the Saints have knowledge of our prayers?


A. Surely, because the Saints pleased God, God must reward them.  As a part of

   their happiness they must be given the liberty to make use of their ability

   as spirits to follow their loved ones here on earth and to hear and see

   their needs.



                        SECOND STAGE



Q. What will become of man during the Second Stage?


A. At a time which only God knows, the Second Coming of Christ will occur,

   i.e. our Lord Jesus Christ will come again to be with us a second time.

   Then, through the power which He has as God, He will first raise the bodies

   of those who died, as He raised His own body.  These bodies will not have

   the evils of today, which are the result of the original sin, but will be

   incorruptible and each of them will be given to the soul which it had when

   it lived in the world.  At the same time He will also change the bodies of

   those who are alive at that time and make them incorruptible.  He will then

   judge all of them.


Q. By what law will Christ judge the world?


A. Those who had not the opportunity to know the Christian Law, Christ will

   judge on the basis of the Natural Moral Law which every man carries in him

   from birth and which is manifested in the requirements of conscience.  But

   those who had the opportunity of knowing the Christian Faith, regardless of

   whether they accepted it or not, Christ will judge on the basis of the

   Christian Law.  And those, who accepted the Christian Faith and kept it

   incorrupt and did the good works which it requires, even if they had

   sinned, but repented and corrected whatever wrongs they had done, will go

   away to Paradise, and those who did not accept the Christian Faith though

   they had the opportunity of knowing it, or who accepted it but afterwards

   corrupted it, or did not do the good works which it requires, and did not

   repent before they died, will go away into punishment.


Q. What is this judgement called?


A. General, or Last or final judgement.



                        THIRD STAGE



Q. What will become of men in the Third (3rd) Stage?


A. The condition of each individual will no more be changed, but those, who

   have gone into Paradise will live in Heaven eternally happy, and those who

   have gone into Punishment will live in Hades eternally unhappy.


Q. Is there one (1) life after death or many?


A. There is only (1) one; not many.  Beware of others who tell you otherwise!

   Also, watch out for "spiritualists", or "mediums", or "astrologers", or

   "gurus" who would tell you that you have a spirit guide who is in control

   of your spiritual destiny or growth!  These are evil men who would put you

   in touch with fallen angels, or demons.  Do not confuse demons from hades

   with the Angels and Saints from Heaven above.



                                ARTICLE 8.


                           ON THE HOLY SPIRIT



Q. What Dogma is to be found in the eighth (8th) Article?


A. The Dogma of the Holy Spirit.


Q. What is that Dogma?


A. That the Holy Spirit is the third person of the Holy Trinity, has the same

   authority with the Father and the Son, gives life to all, proceeds from the

   Father and spake through the Prophets and other Holy men before and after



Q. When, how, and for what reason was the Holy Spirit sent to the Apostles?


A. The Holy Spirit was sent on Pentecost, the fiftieth (50th) day after the

   Resurrection of Jesus, to the Apostles, who were waiting in the upper room

   in Jerusalem for the fulfillment of the promise given to them that He would

   enlighten them to preach the Gospel and impart to the believers the

   Mysteries of Grace (the Sacraments).


Q. Has the Holy Spirit since then deserted the Church of Christ?


A. No.  He continues to abide with the Church, and to act on its behalf, to

   guide it into all the truth (Gospel of John, Chapter 16, Verse 13), and

   through His Divine Grace to help men in their salvation.




                                ARTICLE 9.


                              ON THE CHURCH



Q. What is the Church?


A. A Divine Institution, which continues the work of Christ for the salvation

   of mankind and embraces all those who believe in Him rightly and who are

   under the leadership of Canonical Pastors.


Q. By whom was the Church established, when and for what purpose, and when was

   it called Christian?


A. The Church was established by our Lord Jesus Christ, when He selected the

   twelve (12) Apostles.  It began to expand principally on the day of

   Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit enlightened the Apostles and they preached

   the Gospel not only in the Greek and Hebrew (or Aramaic) languages, but

   also in languages which they had never learned; on that day three thousand

   souls believed and were baptized.  The Church was established to teach,

   govern, sanctify, and save men.  The followers of Christ were called

   Christians for the first time in Antioch between 36 and 40 A.D.


Q. What obligation has a man to his Church?


A. To be in good standing membership of the Church, i.e. to believe in the

   Dogmas rightly, receive the Sacraments canonically and obey the Canonical

   Ecclesiastical Authorities of his district; otherwise he cannot be saved,

   if he does not belong to and abide by the Church, as Christ makes plain to

   us.  (Gospel of Saint John, Chapter 15, Verses 1-8).


Q. Is the connection of its members with the Church sundered (severed) by



A. No, because the Church is divided into two (2) sections:


        1.  one section on earth, and

        2.  the other section in Heaven.


Q. What are the two sections of the Church called?


A. The one on earth         is called: the Church Militant,        and

   the one in Heaven        is called: the Church Triumphant.


Q. Who is the Head of the Church?


A. Christ is the invisible Head, but the visible heads are the Bishops as

   successors of the Apostles.


Q. Into what orders are the members of the Church divided?


A. Into two (2), the Flock: (That is the Laity), and the Shepherds, that is

   the Clergy: (Bishops, Presbyters, and Deacons).


Q. What characteristics are ascribed to the Church in the ninth (9th) Article?


A. That the Church is:


        1.  One,

        2.  Holy,

        3.  Catholic, and

        4.  Apostolic.


Q. Why is it so called?



        1.  One:        because all Christians are one (1) body, with

                        one (1) Head, Christ, with one (1) Faith and

                        one (1) organization.


        2.  Holy:       because it is sanctified by Christ with His blood,

                        teaches a Holy Faith, and through the Sacraments

                        aims at the santification of its members.


        3.  Catholic:   because it holds all the truth, is foreordained to

                        hold fast to it for all time, to teach all peoples,

                        and to embrace within its membership all humanity.


        4.  Apostolic:  because it traces it beginning back to the Apostles,

                        holds the teachings of the Apostles entire and

                        unadulterated, and is governed by the canonical

                        successors of the Apostles whose successors have

                        received Holy Orders from them in uninterrupted







Q. What conditions cause a member to be cut off from the Church Militant, and

   what is he called then?



        1.  When a member falls into apostasy or leaves the Christian

   religion, then he is called an apostate.


        2.  When a member falls into heresy, i.e. adds human Dogmas to the

   Divine Dogmas or takes away from them or perverts those which Christ gave

   to us for our salvation; then he is called a heretic or cacodox.


        3.  When a member falls into schism, namely, does not acknowledge the

   canonical Ecclesiastical Authorities, or in any way strikes at their

   administration; then he is called schismatic or anticanonical.


        4.  When a member falls into excommunication, namely, commits a mortal

   sin and stubbornly clings to it, causing great scandal; then he is

   excommunicated by the Ecclesiastical Authority and is called an



Q. How does the Church protect her Dogmas and organization?


A. By Councils and Ecclesiastical Courts.


Q. What are the Councils and how many kinds of Councils are there?


A. Councils are assemblies of the Holy Clergy to consider the affairs and

   problems of the Church.  There are three (3) kinds: Provincial, Local,

   and Ecumenical, and lately there have been added the Permanent Synods.


Q. Which of them are infallible, when and why?


A. The Ecumenical Councils, when they assemble and decide freely.  They are

   infallible for two (2) reasons:


        1.  because of their universality, i.e. because the entire Church is

            represented in them.


        2.  because they are under divine guidance, as our Lord promised.

                        ...(Gospel of Saint John, Chapter 16, Verse 13)




                                ARTICLE 10.


                             ON THE SACRAMENTS




Q. What Dogma is contained in the tenth Article?


A. The Dogma on the Sacrament of Baptism.


Q. What is a Sacrament?


A. A ceremony established in the Church by the Christ, either directly or

   indirectly through the Apostles by which invisible Divine Grace is by

   visible means communicated to Christians.


Q. How many are the Sacraments and what kind of Grace is imparted through



A. The Sacraments are seven (7):


        +*  1. Baptism,

        :*  2. Chrism or Confirmation,

        +*  3. Penance (or Confession),

        :*  4. the Divine Eucharist (or Communion),

        :   5. Holy Orders,

        :   6. Marriage, and

        :   7. Unction.


        Note: The Sacraments flagged by (*) are obligatory for the individual

              Christian; and those flagged by (+) impart Grace by

              Sanctification; while those flagged by (:) impart Grace

              by Progress.


   Grace unto sanctification is imparted through Baptism and Penance, and

   Grace for progress in the Christian life is given through the remaining

   five (5) Sacraments.


Q. Are the Sacraments repeated upon one and the same person?


A. Certainly, except only the Sacraments of Baptism and Holy Orders, because

   these two (2) are ineffaceable in the soul; and even these are repeated

   regularly whenever they are invalid, because then they are as though they

   had not been given and are also repeated conditionally whenever doubt

   exists.  For example, when we are not sure, whether a person has been

   baptized or not, we baptize him with the words:


        "The servant of God (name) is baptized, if he has not been baptized,

         in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."


Q. Are all the Sacraments necessary for salvation?


A. For the whole Church they are necessary; but for the individual Christian,

   1. Baptism, 2. Chrism, 3. Penance, and 4. the Holy Eucharist are necessary,

   and for this reason are called obligatory while the other three are spoken

   of as optional.


Q. Who perform valid Sacraments?


A. The canonical Clergy, i.e. those canonically ordained to the Priesthood,

   and canonically authorized; that is, appointed by the canonical

   Ecclesiastical Authority to have the right to exercise the Priesthood.






Q. Are there other means of Grace besides the Sacraments and if so what are

   they called?


A. Yes.  They are called Sacraments or Means of Santification.


Q. In what do they differ from the Sacraments?


A. Because the Sacraments were instituted by Jesus Christ and are necessary

   for salvation, but the Means of Sanctification were established by the

   Church and develop good thoughts and character in Christians and help them

   in their physical and spiritual life.


Q. What are the means of Sanctification?



        The sign of the cross which we make when we pray;

        the lesser and the Great Holy Water;

        the Flowers of the Cross (at the Feast of the Elevation, Sept. 14)

                and of the Veneration of the Cross, (3rd Sunday of the

                Great Lent);

        and Flowers of the Holy Sepulchre (which we use on Good Friday);

        the Palms;

        the Prayers to the Holy Virgin and Saints;

        the Prayers of birth and of the forty days (or of the churching on the

                fortieth day after the birth);

        the Prayers of Exorcism against the evil eye and for various needs,

                which arise during the life of man;

        finally, as a Means of Sanctification, the constant use of the

                Holy Scriptures, daily meditation upon them, and faithful

                study is of great importance.


   The truths of our holy religion are all Scriptural, and the Christian, well

   grounded in the teaching of the Catechism (this document), will find the

   Scriptures a never-ending joy and inspiration to him and necessary for the

   best results in happiness and character building.  But in the study of the

   Holy Scripture one should, in the event of doubt as to the meaning of any

   part of the Scripture, apply to the governing Church, the divinely

   appointed interpreter of the Holy Scriptures.






Q. How do the Churches differ as to the number of Sacraments?


A. The Orthodox and Papal Churches accept seven (7) Sacraments, but the

   Protestant Churches accept two (2): Baptism and the Eucharist, except a

   few who accept them as simple types or remembrances without divine Grace,

   and especially the so-called Church of God, which accepts: Baptism, the

   Eucharist, and Foot-washing, but only as ceremonies, without Divine Grace.

   The Anglican Church says, to be sure, that it accepts two (2) Sacraments,

   when in reality she acknowledges the seven (7).  The difference comes from

   the meaning which the Anglican Church attaches to the word Mystery or

   Sacrament, because by it she means those only which clearly appear in the

   New Testament as established by the Christ, while the other five (5) she

   calls Apostolical Institutions, but she holds that through them Divine

   Grace is conferred, namely, she accepts them as we accept the Sacraments.






Q. Which Church is right as to the number of Sacraments and why?


A. The Orthodox, Papal, and essentially, the Anglican Church, while the

   Protestant Churches are in error, because, as we shall see from Holy

   Scripture and Holy Tradition, it is manifest that our Lord instituted

   either directly or indirectly seven (7) sacred ceremonies by means of

   which Divine Grace is conferred for a definite purpose, namely, the

   seven Mysteries or Sacraments.






Q. What is Baptism?


A. Baptism is a holy ceremony.  The Priest in performing it calls upon the

   Holy Spirit and through Him sanctifies the water then he submerges the

   person about to be baptized in it three times (3x), in the name of the

   Holy Trinity.  Thus the person is cleansed of his personal sins, and is

   spiritually regenerated.


Q. Who instituted Baptism, in place of what, when and why?


A. Our Lord, in the place of Circumcision, before His ascension into Heaven,

   because it is necessary to salvation.


Q. What is required for Baptism, and is it necessary for infants?


A. Faith in Christ.  Baptism is necessary for infants also, because while they

   do not have personal sins, nevertheless they do have original sin of which

   they need to be cleansed.


Q. Have infants faith?


A. No; and for this reason we employ a Sponsor of adult age who confesses the

   faith in behalf of the infant and assumes the responsibility to teach it

   the Christian faith when it is sufficiently grown, if for any reason the

   parents should not do this.


Q. Is it permitted to perform Baptism in any other way?  If so, when is it

   performed, what is it then called, and who is permitted to perform it?


A. When anyone is ill and not able to be immersed in water, it is required

   only that he be sprinkled with water (or lifted in the air, if water cannot

   be had) three times, in the name of the Holy Trinity (in the name of

   the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost).  This is called Clinic Baptism

   (from the couch upon which the sick person lies) or Baptism by Economy

   (for the saving of time when necessary).  It is performed by the Priest, or

   in case of his absence, by a Layman, even by the midwife or one of the

   parents of the sick.


Q. How is the Baptism of Economy completed?


A. If the person who is being baptized with the Baptism of Economy lives until

   the Priest arrives, the Priest reads the prayers and performs the whole of

   the part of the ceremony of the regular Baptism which comes after the three



Q. Have both forms of Baptism the same validity?


A. Complete and Canonical Baptism is the regular one.  The Baptism of Economy

   is performed only in case of necessity, for the salvation of the souls of

   those who are near death, and for this reason, if they live, they are not

   allowed to be Clergymen.


Q. Is Baptism repeated and when?


A. Baptism is not repeated, unless:


        1.  It was performed in a heretical Church which does not baptize in

            the name of the Holy Trinity.


        2.  It is not sure that Baptism was performed.


        3.  The Baptism of Economy has been performed not because of necessity

            but only because of heretical disposition.


        4.  It was performed by a Clergyman who acts without the permission of

            the Ecclesiastical Authority.


   In any case it is the right of the Ecclesiastical Authority to recognize or

   not recognize by economy a Baptism which was needlessly performed

   irregularly or regularly but by a Clergyman who is deposed or acts without

   the permission of the Ecclesiastical Authority.


Q. How are the apostate, the heretic, and the schismatic received into the



A. The apostate and the heretic are anointed with Holy Chrism and the

   schismatic signs a written confession.


Q. Is there any other kind of Baptism?


A. Yes, the Baptism of Blood, i.e. the sudden death a man may suffer for

   Christ before being baptized.


Q. Is such a baptism sufficient for salvation?


A. Whenever Canonical Baptism or Baptism by Economy cannot be obtained for him

   who is to give his life for Christ, the Baptism of Blood is sufficient for




                        CHRISM OR CONFIRMATION



Q. What is Chrism or Confirmation?


A. Chrism is a holy ceremony which accompanies Baptism in which the Cleric

   anoints with Holy Chrism different members, (parts) of the body of the

   baptized, or of one coming back to the Christian Church from which he has

   departed to embrace another Faith or of one who had fallen into heresy, by

   means of which the anointing Grace of the Holy Spirit is conferred to

   strengthen him, that he may progress in his new Christian life.


Q. What is the Holy Chrism and who prepares it and how?


A. The Holy Chrism is oil of the olive tree, and many other elements, which

   are prepared at the Ecumenical Patriarchate by boiling and are consecrated

   by the Ecumenical Patriarchate at Constantinople, with all Bishops who

   happen to be present there, in a special ceremony which takes place on the

   Holy Thursday, beginning from Good Monday.  This Chrism is afterward

   distributed to all the Orthodox Churches.


Q. Who instituted Chrism and how was it administered by the Apostles?


A. Jesus Christ, as appears from the Epistle to the Hebrews where the

   Sacrament of the Chrism is enumerated as a Dogma along with that of

   Baptism and the Resurrection of the Dead,


                "Of the doctrine of baptisms, of laying on of hands (Chrism),

                 and of resurrection of the dead"

                        ...(Book of Hebrews, Chapter 6, Verse 2).


   But it was performed by the Apostles by the laying on of their hands upon

   the baptized.


Q. Why was the Holy Chrism substituted for the laying on of hands?


A. Because when the Christians increased in numbers the Apostles and the

   Bishops instituted by them were not sufficient to perform this Sacrament.


Q. Is Chrism ever repeated?


A. Yes, when any member of the Church comes back to the Christian Church from

   another faith or heresy into which he had fallen.






Q. What is the Sacrament of Penance and what else is it called?


A. The Sacrament of Penance is a holy ceremony in which the sinner, repenting,

   confesses his sins to Christ before the Confessor, is forgiven, and

   reconciled with God again; it is also called the Sacrament of Confession.


Q. Through whom are sins forgiven?  Has he the power to forgive sins?  And by

   whom is he thus empowered?


A. Sins are forgiven through the Confessor who has this power from our Lord

   Jesus Christ, because our Lord gave it to His Apostles in the words:


                "Receive ye the Holy Ghost; whosesoever sins ye remit, they

                 are remitted unto them and whosesoever sins ye retain, they

                 are retained."

                        ...(Gospel of Saint John, Chapter 20, Verses 22-23),


   and they in turn gave it to their successors, and these to the Clergymen

   who were under them.


Q. By whom and when was this Sacrament instituted, and is it necessary for our



A. By our Lord, after His resurrection.  It is necessary for our salvation

   because every man, after Baptism, falls into sin which stains the soul and

   is a transgression of the law of God.  If therefore, this sin is not

   forgiven, the sinner cannot draw near to the Holy God; and is moreover,

   subject to punishment.


Q. Can a layman take the place of a Clergyman and act as Confessor?


A. Only in the didactic part of Confession; but not in the part relative to

   absolution, because he who is not a Cleric does not have the power from

   Christ to forgive.


Q. Can Confession be made directly to God?


A. It can.  But it is neither wise nor safe, because the sinner by himself

   neither is able always to see his sins as the experienced eye of the

   Confessor sees them, nor can he obtain the necessary guidance, or pass

   judgement upon himself with full justice.  Why therefore should the sinner

   not apply to the Spiritual Father, since Jesus Himself saw it to be right,

   and appointed him to be His representative with the power to bind and

   loose?  It is as if we sought for justice directly from the President of

   the United States, while there are courts established for this purpose.

   Otherwise, if it were something better for us to confess directly to God,

   the Lord would have declared His law to that effect more simply and would

   not have placed the Apostles and their successors, the Bishops and the

   Clergymen between God and the repenting sinner.


Q. How is the purpose of Confession consumated?


A. Confession is consumated:


        1.  If the sinner feels his sins and sorrows because he had displeased

            God, who is his Father.


        2.  If he firmly resolves not to fall again into sin or into whatever

            he knows to be sinful.


        3.  If he confesses his sins with humility, sincerity, and accuracy,

            and does not hide anything of shame or fear, for this would be as

            though he sought to deceive God.


        4.  If he receives absolution from the Confessor as the latter reads

            over him the prayer for forgiveness.


        5.  If he accepts the penance which the Priest imposes on him, if any.


Q. What are the duties and the rights of the Confessor?


A. It is his duty not to speak of anything he hears in the Confession, (unless

   and when the penitent gives him permission), and to express his judgement

   and counsel in the most appropriate manner for the improvement of the

   penitent.  And it is his right to impose pennances upon the penitent

   whenever he deems such penances necessary for his benefit.


Q. Has the one who has made the Confession the right to censure the Confessor

   for the penance which he has imposed?


A. The penitent is free to accept or reject the imposed penance but he has

   no right to criticize the Confessor, because Confession is not compulsory.

   One is not permitted to injure the reputation of a Confessor by whom many

   others may be benefited, if he himself does not so desire, to benefit by

   him because in this manner he injures many men in their greatest interest

   when such confession would be for their advantage, their moral improvement,

   and the salvation of their souls.


Q. What is the name of the penalties which the Confessor imposes?


A. Penances.  Penances are restitutions for wrongs done, e.g. the surrender of

   things stolen or destroyed, righting of a reputation damaged, etc., or are

   theraputical measures against sin, as deprivation of Holy Communion for a

   certain time, imposition of fastings, prayers, reading useful books,

   performance of holy ceremonies and good deeds of a spiritual or corporeal

   nature.  And the chief spiritual works are the following seven (7):


                1.  To admonish the sinner,

                2.  instruct the ignorant,

                3.  counsel the doubtful,

                4.  comfort the sorrowful,

                5.  head wrongs patiently,

                6.  forgive all injured,

                7.  and pray for the living and the dead.


Q. How can one come to the knowledge of his sins and be prepared for



A. By stopping to consider to what extent he has fulfilled his obligations to

   God, his neighbor, and to himself.  (See the Decalogue, the Beatitudes and

   the Sermon on the Mount).


Q. How can one who has confessed be helped in his or her decision not to fall

   again into the same sins?



        1.  By his own strength in resisting temptation.

        2.  By Divine strength, by praying and seeking Divine help, by all the

            means of sanctification which the Church gives for the avoiding of

            temptations, surrendering wholly his free will to God, that He may

            direct it to his own advantage.


Q. Do the penances help the penitent to be corrected and why?


A. Yes, because:


        1.  He suffers on account of the toil or the money which he expends.


        2.  He feels a deeper repentance, and this psychological condition

            influences and strengthens his will, so that he resists sin more

            strongly and successfully in the future.


Q. What do we do when we present ourselves before the Confessor for




        1.  We make the sign of the cross or kneel and kiss the Holy Picture

            of Christ.


        2.  We tell the Confessor the time of our last confession, and

            afterwards, we answer his questions briefly and simply, telling

            him only the sins committed since our last confession, without



        3.  We seek instructions and listen with attention to the counsels of

            the Confessor.


        4.  On going out, we kiss again the picture of Christ, thank God that

            He has counted us worthy to be cleansed again by the bath of

            repentance, and we beseech Him that He may preserve us from sudden

            death which does not afford us an opportunity for a last

            confession and the Holy Communion.






Q. What is the Sacrament of the Eucharist, and what else is it called?


A. The Sacrament of the Divine Eucharist is a holy ceremony in which the

   Priest offers to God leavened bread and wine, and calls upon the

   Holy Spirit, who changes the bread into the body and the wine in to the

   blood of Christ.  It is also called Holy Communion.


Q. Who instituted the Sacrament of the Eucharist, when and how?


A. Our Lord Jesus Christ in the Mystic (or last) Supper, when He ate with

   His Apostles on Holy Thursday at evening; namely the day before He was

   crucified.  Then He took bread, blessed it, broke it, and said:


                "Take, eat; this is my body".  Then He took cup with wine,

   blessed it saying:


                "Drink ye all of it, for this is my blood of the

                 New Testament, which is shed for many for the

                 remission of sins."

                        ...(Gospel of Saint Matthew, Chapter 26, Verses 26-28)


Q. Why did He institute it?


A. That the sacrifice of Jesus might be repeated in the Church and that

   through the communion of the body and blood of Christ believers might

   receive the following benefits:


        1.  That they might be united with Jesus, and by this union their past

            may be cleansed perfectly, their tendancy towards evil be

            weakened, and their tendency towards good be strengthened for the

            developing of a more perfect Christian life, and the eternal life

            which by sin was cut be regained.


        2.  That their bodies might be raised at the Second Coming of Christ,

            and assigned with the righteous to the enjoyment of eternal



Q. What is the name of the change which took place at the Mystic Supper, does

   it take place now, and by what power?


A. Transubstantiation, and it takes place now also by the power of the Holy

   Spirit through the Bishops and Priests.


Q. Do the Bishops and Priests receive such Grace?


A. Assuredly, because Jesus made the life of this Church to be age-long, so

   that He gave them to transmit to their successors, and for this reason He

   told them to teach the nations to observe whatsoever He had commanded them

   promising that He would be with them always until the end of the world.

   (Gospel of St. Matthew, Chapter 28, Verse 19)


Q. When does transubstantiation take place?


A. When the Choir sings,


        "We praise Thee, we bless Thee",


   then the Priest calls upon God saying:


         "And make this bread the precious body of Thy Christ: and the wine

          in this cup the precious blood of Thy Christ, changing (them) by

          Thy Holy Spirit."  (See Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom).


Q. Is the Sacrament of the Eucharist necessary and how often ought it to be



A. It is necessary, because Jesus said expressly:


        "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye

         have no life in you." (Gospel of St. John, Chapter 6, Verse 53).


   For this reason it is proper that we make our communion at least four times

   (4x) in the year, and also when we are sick or near death.


Q. Is there no danger that contagious diseases will be transferred from one to

   another, since the Divine Eucharist (Holy Communion) is received from the

   same spoon?


A. No, because:


        1.  From the human point of view, it is improbable at least for

   voluntary diseases, as those who voluntarily are sick with contagious

   diseases are not allowed by the Holy Canons and their conscience to

   take the Holy Communion, and furthermore, the alcohol of the wine is one

   of the best protective measures, according to the assurance and the

   practice of physicians.


        2.  From a Divine view, it is impossible that the Divine Power should

   leave exposed to dangers men who are doing that which the God-man commanded

   them as necessary for the salvation of the soul.  Because otherwise all the

   Priests and Deacons would fall victims to contagious diseases, since they

   must always drink all that remains in the Holy cup after all the faithful

   have received the Holy Communion.  Therefore, it is a vain fear which some

   of our faithful have, that they might contract germs from the Holy

   Communion, and they must strengthen their faith at least by the logic of

   the facts themselves.


Q. Is it well to commune oftener, and how ought to be prepared for it?


A. What is better than that we should receive unto us as often as possible the

   Lord of life and all grace and blessing: provided only that we prepare

   ourselves fittingly because:


        "He that eateth and drinketh unworthily receiveth condemnation unto

         himself" (I Corinthians, Chapter 11, Verse 29)


   and we are prepared by fasting and confession.


Q. Is anyone exempted from this preparation?  (fasting and confession)



        1.  No one is exempted from confession.


        2.  However, the Clerics, the sick, and travelers are exempt from



                The Clergy because it would be necessary for them to fast

                almost continuously, as they celebrate the Divine Liturgy

                and consequently partake of the Holy Communion almost every



                The sick, because their health does not permit fasting;


                The travelers because they cannot find lenten fare.


   But Clergymen as well as the sick and travelers must at least fast

   spiritually, which is possible to all and requires more than abstinence

   from certain foods.


Q. From what Holy Bread do the sick receive?


A. From the Holy Bread which is consecrated on Holy Thursday, and is kept

   through the whole year in an appropriate place called the Holy Bread Box.


Q. Is it proper that the Holy Bread should be adored even after the Divine



A. Yes, because once it has become changed, it cannot cease to be the body and

   blood of the Lord.


Q. What facts worthy of notice are to be pointed out in the Divine Eucharist?



        1.  That after the change, while we see and taste bread and wine,

            these two elements are substantially the body and blood of Christ.


        2.  That while each Christian receives a part only of the body and

            blood he receives all of Christ.


Q. Is the Divine Eucharist simply a ceremony?  And for whom is it performed?


A. No.  It is a true propitiatory sacrifice because it is the same sacrifice

   of Golgotha, with this difference:


        the sacrifice on Golgotha was offered once and with blood, that the

        Divine Justice might be satisfied for the original sin,




        the sacrifice of the Divine Eucharist, while it is the same, is

        performed constantly and without blood, and for this reason is called

        bloodless sacrifice, and the Holy Table on which it is offered, an

        Altar and is offered, every time to glorify the supreme love and

        condescension of God to man and, in its other aspect, that Divine

        Justice might be satisfied for the personal sins of those for whom it

        is offered.  It is offered in honour and in memory of the Saints, and

        for the forgiveness of the sins of the living and dead members of the



Q. Is it permitted that more than one Liturgy (Holy Mass) be performed on the

   same day by one Priest and on one and the same Altar?


A. No; a different Priest and a different Altar must be used for each Liturgy.



                                HOLY ORDERS



Q. What is the Sacrament of Holy Orders?


A. A Holy ceremony, at which the Bishop lays his hands upon the head of the

   one who is being ordained, and calls upon God for the Grace of the Holy

   Spirit, which comes down and makes him able to confer upon faithful men

   the gifts of the Holy Spirit and to perform, in general, the duties of

   the Priesthood.


Q. Who instituted the Sacrament of Holy Orders and when, and how has it been

   transmitted to us?


A. Our Lord Jesus Christ, after His resurrection, when He said to His



        "As the Father hath sent me, even so send I you ... Receive ye the

         Holy Spirit; whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them;

         whosesoever sins ye retain they are retained."

                ...(Gospel of St. John, Chapter 20, Verses 21-23)


   It was transmitted by the Apostles to men whom they had prepared and

   ordained by a special ceremony, and they established them as Bishops,

   Presbyters, and Deacons to perform the functions of the Priesthood,

   giving only to the Bishops alone the power and authority to continue

   the work of conferring Holy Orders according to the needs of the Church.


   (I Timothy, Chapter 4, Verse 14 and II Timothy, Chapter 1, Verse 6),

   (Tutus, Chapter 1, Verse 5), (Acts, Chapter 14, Verse 23),

   (Acts, Chapter 6, Verse 6).


Q. What is necessary for one to be ordained worthily?


A. To be an Orthodox Christian, walking orderly in the Church, to have the

   necessary branches of knowledge and moral character, to be in good physical

   condition, and to have an inclination and a call to His Holy work; the

   ordaining Bishop must be canonical and have the license to ordain.


Q. What are the degrees of the Priesthood and what are they all called in



A. The degrees of the Priesthood are three (3):


        1.  Bishop or Archpriest,

        2.  Presbyter or Priest,  and

        3.  Deacon.


   They are all called in common the Holy Clergy.


Q. What are the duties and rights of each Order?


A. The rights and duties of the Bishop are:


        1. to preach the word of God,

        2. to administer the Sacraments,

        3. to perform the different Holy Services and Holy Functions, and

        4. to govern the Clergy and Laity who are under him:

                that is to care for their Ecclesiastical affairs and



   Those of a Presbyter are all that the Bishop has with his permission,

   except that of ordination and the consecration of the Holy Chrism and

   of the Churches and the higher Ecclesiastical Discipline.


   The Deacon cannot do anything of himself, he only helps the Bishop or the



Q. How many and what Bishops are needed for canonical ordination and



A. For the consecration of a Bishop, three (3), and in the absence of three,

   at least two (2).  For the ordination of a Presbyter or Deacon, one (1)

   suffices.  But the ordaining Bishops must be able to trace their Episcopal

   consecration unbroken from the Apostles and have the license to ordain

   from their immediate Superior Ecclesiastical Authority.


Q. Is it permitted canonically for a Bishop to ordain Priests or Deacons, and

   in general to officiate everywhere?


A. No, only in his own Diocese.  He may officiate in the Diocese of another

   only with the special permission of the local Bishop.


Q. Is ordination repeated on the same person?


A. For higher orders only.  For example, a Deacon is ordained Priest, but

   cannot be again ordained Deacon, even though he has been deposed, and on

   repentance, restored,  But the Orthodox Church can receive by economy

   Clerics of heretical Churches who acknowledge Baptism and Holy Orders

   as Sacraments and have the uninterrupted Apostolical succession, without

   ordaining them anew, e.g. the Clergymen of the Papal, Anglican, Bulgarian,

   etc. Churches.  But the Clerics of those Churches which do not acknowledge

   Holy Orders as a Sacrament or have not the uninterrupted succession, and

   those Clerics who were ordained by a deposed Orthodox Bishop she ordains

   when they come into the Orthodox Church, because they are wholly without



Q. Can a Cleric be married and when is his marriage performed?


A. As the Canons of the Orthodox Church stand today, only a Deacon or a

   Presbyter can be married, but not a Bishop, unless his marriage be disolved

   before his consecration as a Bishop, either by death, or by mutual consent

   of husband or wife.  And the marriage is performed previous to the receiving

   of Holy Orders.






Q. What is the Sacrament of Marriage and who instituted it?


A. A Holy ceremony in which Divine Grace is communicated to those who are

   being joined together so that they may fulfill their duties to one another

   as to their children.  God instituted it when He made our First Parents,

   and Christ consecrated it.  (Gospel of St. Matthew, Chapter 19, Verses 5-6)

   (Gospel of St. Mark, Chapter 10, Verses 5-9).


Q. What are the duties of those so united?


A. The duties of the man are:


        to love and cherish his wife and children, correcting their faults

        and guiding the family to happiness,


                those of the wife:


        to love her husband, be subject to him and help as a good stewardess,

        avoiding all that destroys the home.


   The duties of both together are:


        mutual honour, the improvement of each other in love, and the

        Christian education of their children, both in mind and heart.


Q. What are the most essential elements of marriage?


A. The following:


        1.  Mutual consent of the affianced (man and woman).


        2.  Expression of that consent before the officiating Clergyman and

            all the guests at the beginning of the ceremony, and promise that

            they will give each other mutual help and love throughout all

            their life, both in favorable and unfavorable circumstances.


        3.  Consecration of these agreements by the proper Clergyman by means

            of the Ecclesiastical ceremony of marriage.


Q. Is there any other marriage except the religious one?


A. In the countries where the Church is separated from the State, in addition

   to the Religious Marriage, there is also a Legal Act which is called Civil



Q. Is Civil Marriage recognized everywhere?


A. In the Orthodox States (e.g. Greece, Serbia, Roumania, etc.), Civil

   Marriage is not recognized.  In these countries, the State does not have

   separate Civil Marriage, but only the Religious one, and in particular,

   only that one which is performed according to the Canons of the Church to

   which the married couple belong.


Q. Is a Religious Marriage recognized in the United States of America by the



A. Yes:


        1.  If and as long as the Clergyman who performs the marriage is in

            good standing with his Church.


        2.  If the affianced have obtained a license from the City Hall.


        3.  If the Clergyman who performs the marriage fills out the license

            and returns it to the City Hall after the performance of the



Q. What requirements must be fulfilled for a Marriage?


A. The following:


        a)  Before Marriage:


                1.  The affianced must get a license from a City Hall of the

                State where the marriage is to be performed.


                2.  The affianced must appear before the Priest of their

                Parish and sign a bond that there is no impediment against

                the performance of said Marriage, and give him the license

                from the City Hall.


                3.  The Priest must get a license from the canonical Bishop

                of their Diocese, the Priest making an application to the



                4.  The affianced must receive the Holy Communion fasting,

                after they have been to Confession and have received the

                counsel of the Spiritual father for the new life into which

                they enter.


        b)  At the Marriage:


                1.  The marriage must be performed according to the rites

                of the Orthodox Church.


        c)  After Marriage:


                1.  The officiating Priest must fill out and sign the

                certificate of the license from the City Hall and any

                other document customarily given with the license to be

                filled out, and return all of them to the same City Hall

                to be entered in the records of the City.


                2.  The Priest who has performed the marriage must enter it

                into the Church records.


Q. What are the impediments to Marriage?


A. The following:


        1.  Difference in religion.


        2.  Relationship which is of four (4) kinds:


                a.) by blood,

                b.) by marriage,

                c.) Spiritual through baptism, and

                d.) legal by adoption.



                                HOLY UNCTION



Q. What is the Sacrament of Holy Unction?


A. A ceremony in which the Priest consecrates oil and anoints the sick that

   he may be healed of the sickness of body and soul, and that his sins may

   be forgiven.


Q. Who instituted it and where is its purpose shown?


A. Our Lord Jesus Christ, as appears from the command of the Apostle James:


        "Is there any sick among you?  Let him call for the elders of the

         Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil, and

         the prayer of faith shall save the sick and the Lord will raise

         him up, and if he has committed sins, they shall be forgiven him."

                ...(James, Chapter 5, Verses 14-15)


                        The End